SINGAPORE/BEIJING (Reuters) - Diplomats returning from
overseas postings don't usually receive special attention at China's Ministry
of Foreign Affairs, a vast government bureaucracy with thousands of staff.
Zhao Lijian, a diplomat known for his pugnacious social media presence,
finished a posting in Pakistan in August, he received an enthusiastic welcome
in Beijing. A group of young admirers at the ministry gathered at his office to
cheer his return, according to two people familiar with the matter.
admiration was fueled in part by a Twitter spat he had engaged in a month
earlier with Susan Rice, the national security adviser to former U.S. President
Barack Obama. Each accused the other of being "ignorant" and a
Now a foreign ministry spokesman, Zhao has come to
represent a new generation of diplomatic hawks in China, challenging the
restraint that long characterized the country's engagement with the world,
according to a dozen current and former ministry officials and government
researchers who spoke with Reuters.
emergence has caused a rift with the old foreign policy establishment, amid
worries that increasingly assertive rhetoric could put the country on a
dangerous collision course with powers like the United States, they said.
shift followed instructions that President Xi Jinping issued diplomats in a
memo last year, calling on them to show more "fighting spirit", said
two people with direct knowledge of the matter.
is the first time since 1949 that the 'new hawks' have the power to reshape
China's diplomatic policy," said Qin Xiaoying, who was a director of the
ruling Communist Party's international propaganda department and is now a
researcher with the China Foundation for International and Strategic Studies in
the shift is the widespread feeling among many Chinese that the United States
wants to contain China's rise. Aggressive pushback by diplomats on issues that
provoke nationalistic sentiment, like the protests in Hong Kong or the
coronavirus outbreak, has proven popular domestically.
people who spoke with Reuters for this article declined to be named given the
sensitivity of the matter.
In response to a request for comment by Reuters, the
ministry said Chinese diplomats from all age groups are determined to
"resolutely safeguard" national sovereignty and security.
will not attack unless we are attacked," the ministry said, citing a
slogan from founding leader Mao Zedong. "But if we are attacked, we will
47, did not respond to requests for comment.
spokeswoman for Rice, the former U.S. national security adviser, said she would
not be available for comment. The U.S. State Department did not respond to a
request for comment from Reuters.
gave his instructions about adopting a tougher stance in the face of
international challenges, like deteriorating relations with the United States,
in a handwritten message to diplomats last year, two people with direct
knowledge of the matter told Reuters.
State Councillor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi gave the
same message to officials attending the celebration of the 70th anniversary of
the ministry's founding, Reuters reported in December.
the past year, more than 60 Chinese diplomats and diplomatic missions set up
Twitter or Facebook accounts, by Reuters' count, even though both platforms are
banned in China, often using them to attack Beijing's critics around the world.
this month promoted a conspiracy theory on his personal Twitter account that
the U.S. military brought the coronavirus to the central Chinese city of Wuhan,
where the outbreak began late last year.
President Donald Trump escalated the spat, infuriating Beijing by repeatedly
citing the "Chinese virus".
new Chinese assertiveness is a response in part to Washington's more
confrontational stance towards China under Trump, according to Chinese
can the Americans criticize us constantly, and we can't scold the U.S.? Nobody
likes to be educated all the time," said a diplomat who helped one embassy
set up its Twitter account.
Among China's new Twitter warriors is Zhao's boss, Hua
Chunying, who became the ministry's top spokeswoman last year and began
tweeting last month. A rising star, Hua spent several weeks last year at
the Central Party School, which trains officials destined for promotion.
Twitter aggression is aimed not only at Washington.
Brazil, Chinese Ambassador Yang Wanming shared a tweet, later deleted, calling
the family of President Jair Bolsonaro "poison" after his son blamed
the "Chinese dictatorship" for the coronavirus pandemic.
embassy in Peru blasted Nobel laureate Mario Vargas Llosa for
"irresponsible" comments after the 83-year-old said the virus had
"originated in China".
the Chinese Embassy in Singapore went after a former Singaporean diplomat,
Bilahari Kausikan, after he linked the virus outbreak and China's political
system. The article was "smearing China's political system and the
leadership system," it said.
diplomats are not engaging the world with diplomatic language, but they are
trying to please the domestic audience," said Qin. "This is not
diplomacy. This is very dangerous."
Many young diplomats have pushed the Chinese
government to take a harder line when dealing with the United States, according
to diplomats. This month, the foreign ministry made an unprecedented move by
expelling about a dozen American journalists at U.S. newspapers.
more traditional diplomats have sought to distance themselves from the new
tactics, wary of putting China on a collision course with the United States.
Tiankai, a ministry spokesman in the 1990s and now ambassador to Washington,
said in a recent interview with Axios on HBO that it would be "crazy"
to spread theories about a possible U.S. origin for the virus.
is definitely a generational divide," said Douglas H. Paal, who served on
the National Security Council under U.S. Presidents Ronald Reagan and George H.
W. Bush. Cui "was and is in the tradition of 'just the facts'."
retired diplomats and researchers at state think tanks, wary of provoking
anti-China sentiment globally, have been writing cautionary internal reports,
the researchers said.
Some cite the pragmatism of Communist China's first
foreign minister, Zhou Enlai, who sought to make as many friends as possible
for the country and avoid making enemies.
spirit of diplomacy was largely adopted by the later reform leader Deng
Xiaoping, whose policy of "biding our time and nurturing our
strength" enabled China to keep a low profile internationally while
focusing on economic growth.
young diplomats are taking control of strategy and want it to be more
pugnacious to win domestic public opinion," said a veteran government
researcher who wrote one of the reports.
younger generation only know a rising China, and think this is a law of nature,
said Kausikan, the retired permanent secretary of Singapore's Foreign Ministry.
sometimes seems as if this new generation feels obliged to have a public
quarrel to prove their patriotism."
(Reporting by Keith Zhai and Yew Lun Tian; Editing by Tony
Munroe and Philip McClellan)